A Visit to Pointe-à-Callière Museum: Montréal Beneath Your Feet

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Since Pointe-à-Callière Museum opened in 1992, I was there for several visits. The latest one occurred very recently as I was eager to see the new pavilion that was inaugurated last May featuring the Fort Ville-Marie.

I like this museum—I must admit I have always admired the work of archeologists, which requires great attention to detail and patience. To read about the history of Montréal from the beginnings is a must, indeed, but seeing the actual site is quite an experience.

While strolling through the Fort Ville-Marie pavilion, you are literally—thanks to a glass floor—walking over the fort remains. One of my earliest Montréal ancestors, Marin Janot dit Lachapelle, arrived in Ville-Marie in 1653, 11 years after its foundation, among a group later known as the Grande recrue de 1653 (117 engagés and 14 women). Marin was a carpenter. I like to think that he was maybe one of the men who took care of the narrow posts for the palisade.

And it is easy to imagine the lives of women and men on the site while looking at artifacts which were gathered such as the remains of tools that have been used to build the fort as well as the terrine, dish and jar unearthed by archeologists. Most of the livestock bones found were pigs', revealing how important this animal was for the settlers. It was also noticed that the Amerindians were recycling French copper pot pieces into either arrow heads or tinkling cones (the latter being used as garment and hair decorations).

In addition to the foundations of Fort Ville-Marie, the site features those of Château Callière which will be built later (it was destroyed around 1760), as well as a fire pit dating back from the period when Amerindians occupied the territory before the arrival of the first Europeans.

Just outside the museum, on Place d'Youville, be sure not to miss the Pioneers' monument as you'll maybe be among those whose Montréal ancestor's name has been engraved in the stone.

The 2017 Montréal's summer was certainly one for history buffs to relish, but fortunately some exhibitions will remain for all of us to enjoy.

New Season of PBS Finding Your Roots This Fall

Finding Your Roots New Season premieres next Tuesday, October 3, 2017 on PBS.

“Dit” Names: And What If Your Surname Was Not the Original One?

Your surname is Languedoc, Sanschagrin, Laframboise or Saint-Jean? There is a good chance your ancestor's name was completely different.

In Québec, a lot of people do not share their surname with their ancestor. They are rather known by their ancestor's or one of his descendants' "dit" name. Some pioneers' surnames are actually not used anymore, having been replaced by the "dit" name associated therewith.

Much of these "dit" names were borne by militaries which then represent the third most important group of immigrants after the "engagés" and the King's Daughters (or Filles du roi). In the army, each recruit was given a nickname by an officer. The soldiers who settled in Canada, a colony of New France at the time, were mostly from the Carignan-Salières Regiment which came in 1665, from the Compagnies franches de la Marine which were responsible for the colony's protection as early as 1683, as well as infantry's regiments who came to fight the British during the Seven Years' War (1756-1763).

For other families, "dit" names appeared later on in order to distinguish the different branches. Hence, descendants of the Lefebvre family of Baie-du-Febvre also bear the name Descôteaux, Labbé or Laciseraie. As for Paul Hus' descendants, they had for a surname Beauchemin, Capistran, Cournoyer, Latraverse, Lemoine, Millet, Paul, Paulet, or even Paulhus. Be careful though, those with the "dit" name Lemoine are not all descendants of Paul Hus and those named Laframboise do not have all the same ancestor.

It is not easy to explain why a specific surname was given to an ancestor. In a few cases, the "dit" name comes from the pioneers' wife maiden name, such as Bélisle dit Levasseur, Lemire dit Marsolet and Morand dit Grimard. In other cases, it is a contraction of the first name and of the surname: Castonguay (Gaston Guay), Louiseize (Louis Seize) or Paulhus (Paul Hus). For seigniorial families, the "dit" name represents the fief or the seigniory's name: Boucher of Montbrun or Noël of Tilly.

The most common "dit" names often simply derive from the ancestor's first name: Germain Gauthier dit St-Germain. The "dit" name may also reveal more or less precisely the origin of an ancestor like L'allemand (translation: from Germany), Langevin (from Anjou), Lyonnais (from Lyon) or Montauban. The "dit" name could tell you about your ancestor's occupation like Lalancette, for a surgeon, or Lalime, for a founder or a locksmith. Wondering what your ancestor looked or was like? Legros (large), Latendresse (gentleness), Sansregret (no regret), Lespérance (hope). In the army, "dit" names were often a flower or plant name such as Latulipe (tulip), Larose (rose), Lafleur (flower), and so on.

To conclude, what about some funny nicknames from our military ancestors? Baisela (sorry, this one will be translated as "xxx"), Vivelamour (viva love), Prêtàboire (ready to drink), Vadeboncoeur (goes with a happy heart), Tranchemontagne (mountain splitter), Passepartout (goes anywhere or master key) or Laterreur (terror).

Sources:
Jetté, René et Micheline Lécuyer. Répertoire des noms de famille du Québec des origines à 1825, éd. SGCF, Montréal, 201 p.

Jetté, René. Traité de généalogie, Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, 1991. 716 p. (out-of-print)

French Canadian Surname Mutations in the United States

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If you are from the United States and are looking for French Canadian ancestors, you know for sure how difficult it can be to find them.

You probably heard about "dit" names—my colleague Suzanne will discuss these in a future post—but besides that, something else can be fairly challenging, and that is the mutation of French Canadian surnames in the United States.

I have encountered many cases where people had no clue that a French Canadian was actually in their tree. Often barely two or three generations back, and they had no idea that this Jane Wood was in fact Geneviève Dubois. Or they were stunned to learn that Nelson Little went by the name of Narcisse Petit north of the border.

I am doing quite extensive research in Vermont records and I have come across some interesting surnames' variations! If the literal translation from the French might appear easy to figure out—I cannot help thinking of Shortsleeve, for Courtemanche—some others are not that obvious. Just think of German: might be either for Lallemand or Saint-Germain.

Sometimes, I just need to say it out loud to tell what the French Canadian name might be. I am thinking of Browshaw, for Branchaud; Gorrow, for Gareau; Sears, for Cyr; or Tromblei, for Tremblay. In these cases, the surnames were not translated but rather anglicized. But when I read Fosha, I quickly thought of Foucher while it was for Forcier (which I ended up with after intensive work). And what about the Blanchettes who decided to use Blanchard instead?

Others may seem straightforward like Rock. Oh, yes, it must be for Laroche or Larocque! No, Desrochers or Durocher… wait, what about Lapierre? The same pattern occurs for the name Stone. You are typically up for many hours of research.

Some surname variations simply cannot be explained. How did Arpajou became Parish? And what about Daniels used for Beauchemin? Without the parish repertoires from Vermont, I would be at a loss!

Finally, my favourites are, and by far, John "French" and Martin "Frenchman". Great idea, guys! Thanks for the help!

Are you sure, you do not have French Canadian ancestors? If you have hit a brick wall in the Northeastern States, or even in Missouri, Illinois, Wisconsin or Michigan, there is a real possibility. As you can see, you need to think outside the box if you hope to find that needle in the haystack.

2017 FamilyRoots Seminar in Calgary, Alberta

The Alberta Family Histories Society is presenting FamilyRoots Seminar 2017 on Saturday, September 23rd, in Calgary. Program Sessions and Schedule here. To register, click here.

The Elusive Lady

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While I was looking for one of my ancestors on the Web, I was in for a total surprise. I did manage to find the man but certainly not where I thought I would. I stumbled upon this history thesis about domestic violence in Montreal during the first half of the nineteenth century1.

Jean Detouin's name was mentioned therein but not for the reason you are thinking: he was not a violent man but rather a victim as someone attempted to kill him and burn his house. He had resigned himself to make a complaint against… his own wife!

Marie Archange dite Julie Daigneau was born in Boucherville in 1797. On June 20, 1821, she married Jean Detouin, a carpenter who just immigrated from Belgium. At that time, Marie Archange was living in Montreal while her parents were living in Boucherville. Her older sister, Marie Josephe, also married in Montreal in 1818 with François George Lepailleur, a notary. It is a possibility that Archange was living with her sister at the time of her marriage, although it would have been for a short period since the Lepailleurs left for Châteauguay in 1820.

Seven months after her marriage, Archange gave birth to a girl, Marie Elmire. It was not unusual for the first child to be "premature"—Archange is certainly not the first woman to get married while being pregnant. Three other daughters were born two years apart from each other: Marie Archange dite Angèle, Henriette, and Caroline. The last one was born in June 1828, seven years after her parents' marriage but passed away five days after the birth. Then, the next to youngest child dies in December 1829. Finally, Jean Detouin died in turn a victim of the cholera epidemic in 1832. The two eldest daughters are therefore left fatherless and went on to live with their uncle. And what about the mother?

Jean Detouin's statement against his wife, dated May 5, 1831, is quite informative about the family's life conditions as well as those of Montreal's families from the same era:

"… about three years ago, Julie Daigneau, his wife, has left their bed and house and abandoned her children and started drinking. She's a vagrant and a prostitute. She was out of jail last Tuesday and since then, has come several times to the deponent's house, especially today, has disturbed the peace, assaulted him and threatened to hit him and has uttered multiple threats, including wanting to burn his house…" [translation from French]

Well, well, Archange, now a vagrant and known as Julie, is out of prison and left her house about three years before. I turned to the Montreal Prison registers and started looking as of the date of her last childbirth and there it was! Julie was first jailed in November 1828 for shoplifting. She faces the same charges in March 1829. The next occurrences will be about vagrancy or for disturbing the peace.

With more sleuthing, it is no surprise that Archange was in this situation. Angélique Catafard, her youngest's godmother, was in prison too. She was arrested at the Champ-de-Mars, with other prostitutes. The policeman described them as vagrants and women of bad repute.

Archange dite Julie Daigneau will be serving no less than 28 prison terms where she will actually die on February 3, 1837. She left abundant traces of her existence in court records. On the one hand, if I had solely relied on civil records, I would have never found a death record for her. On the other hand, I would have never known about this family's misery. Finally, in light of this portrait, it is legitimate to wonder if Jean Detouin is the father of Archange's four daughters.

1 Pilarczyk, Ian C. Justice in the Premises: Family Violence and the Law in Montreal, 1825-1850.

A Visit to The Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site

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During summertime, I visited The Fur Trade at Lachine National Historic Site of Canada - Parks Canada*. I have been curious to stop by, as there are some voyageurs in my family tree.

The tiny museum is a nice—and smart—30 to 40-minute break while on a bike trip along the Lachine Canal on a very hot day. An old warehouse built in 1803 by Alexander Gordon, a former employee of the North West Company, the museum building is the last remnant of the Fur Trade era which made Lachine the Voyageurs' rendezvous in the spring.

Even though the exhibit is not mainly intended for children, I could see that those who attended really enjoyed the interactive visit. And the kid that I still am did as well! Maps, artefacts and documents are shown along with explanations about a voyageur's life. The post that above all caught my eye was this one:

"Interested in hiring on?"

Here are the job requirements:

Physical Requirements:
Height: under 1 m 70 tall
Weight: less than 63 kilos
Sex: male
Shoulders: broad and strong
Legs: short

Essential Qualifications:
Great physical and mental stamina.
Able to tolerate mosquitoes.
Not easily bored.
Cheerful and fond of the simple life.

Working Conditions:
Paddle between 16 to 18 hours a day.
Regularly portage 2 or 3 40-kilo packs.
Haul canoes.
Repair damage to canoes.
Get soaked in cold water at every portage.
Sleep five or six hours a night on the ground.
Sing to help maintain the paddling rhythm of anywhere from 40 to 60 strokes a minute.

Compensation from the Company:
Wages: less than $100 a year.
Clothing: pants, shirt, handkerchief, mitashes (leggings) and blanket.
Fire bags: pipe, tobacco and knife.
Food: two daily rations of a mixture of peas, beans or corn and salt pork cooked on a thick mush. Everyone eats from the same pot.
"Régale": an occasional glass of rum.

Well, that lifestyle wasn't for the faint-hearted I guess! By the way, I can't help but wonder if otherwise interesting applicants would be turned down due to their off-key singing.

If you have read engagement contracts signed before a Notary Public, you may thus be familiar with these terms:

Bowman: he watches for shallows and rocks.
After man or steersman: he steers the canoe.
Middlemen: he is one of the paddlers' crew.

Some passengers came along as well, either bourgeois or clerks of the Fur Trading Company. In all, about 10 to 12 people were aboard the canoe.

But why using these small boats to engage in such an adventurous journey? For canoes were the only mean to bypass the Sault-Saint-Louis rapids. Each canoe was transporting four 90-pound ballots containing merchandise that was exchanged for furs with Amerindians. Voyageurs were leaving Lachine, on Lake St. Louis' shores, to paddle to Fort William (Thunder Bay, Ontario), which was the first stop before going further in Fur Country.

Any voyageurs in your own family tree? You may consult this database here from La Société historique de Saint-Boniface.

The museum is open from mid-June to Labor Day weekend.

* To celebrate Canada’s 150th anniversary, Parks Canada is offering free admission to all Parks Canada locations in 2017.

Two Montreal Museums Feature Expo 67’s Exhibitions

Have been too busy to reminisce on 1967's Summer of Love? Two museums in Montreal are featuring exhibitions on the city's famous Expo 67.

Until October 1, McCord Museum is presenting Fashioning Expo 67 and the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal's In Search of Expo 67 consists of 19 works by contemporary Quebec and Canadian artists.

Summer is not over yet!